what is pen drive in hindi? – itinhindi pen history in hindi

what is pen drive in hindi? Mohit Joshi कंप्यूटर बेसिक November 24, 2016 0 Minutes

<h1> PEN DRIVE(पेन ड्राइव) क्या  है?</h1>

PEN DRIVE एक HIGHLIGHTER PEN की तरह दिखने वाला एक उपकरण है| जिसका उपयोग डेटा STORE करने में किया जाता है| इसका अविष्कार सन 1999 में एम. सिस्टम ने किया था|

इसे USB या सीधे ही कंप्यूटर या लैपटॉप से जोड़ा जा सकता है| USB का पूरा नाम universal SERIAL BUSहै| PEN DRIVE अलग-अलग साइज़ में होते है| इनकी सहायता से आप DATA एक जगह से दूसरी जगह ट्रान्सफर कर सकते है| यहाँ हम  PEN DRIVE कैसे काम करती है इसके बारे में जानेंगे PEN DRIVE एक CiRCuIT BOARD  का बना होता है और यही इसका आधार होता है| ये CiRCuIT BOARD ही इसका आधार होता है|यही CiRCuIT BOARD पेन ड्राइव में सारे डेटा को STORE करता है| यह कम विद्युत पावर पर भी DATA को STORE या ERASE करने का कार्य भी करता है|PEN DRIVE E.E.P.R.O.M.S. तकनीक पर कार्य करती है| आप PEN DRIVE में DATA को STORE और ERASE भी कर सकते है| इसके अतिरिक्त इसके बहुत सारे लाभ भी है|

 

PEN DRIVE भरोसेमंद होते है| और अन्य यंत्रो जैसे FLOPPY DISC एवं CD आदि यंत्रो कि तरह कार्य करता है|इनकी कीमत भी कम होती है| साथ ही इन्हें इस्तेमाल करना भी आसान होता है| हम PEN DRIVE  को कही भी जेब में रखकर ले जा सकते है तथा जरुरत पड़ने पर USE कर सकते है|इसे COMPUTER में use करने के लिए किसी अलग APP कि जरुरत भी नहीं पड़ती है| PEN DRIVE कि डेटा TRANSFER की SPEED भी ठीक होती है| PEN DRIVE को धुल व फंगस और अन्य चीजो से नुकसान नहीं होता है| PEN DRIVE और FLASH DRIVE में अंतर——–

 

PC जगत में अनेक ऐसे उपकरण है जिन्हें कई नामों से जाना जाता है| उन्ही में से एक नाम है FLASH DRIVE जिसे PEN DRIVE भी कहा जाता है| कई USERS CONFUSE रहते होंगे कि FLASH DRIVE और PEN DRIVE अलग-अलग है| लेकिन ये अलग-अलग नहीं बल्कि एक ही है और एक चीज़ के दो नाम है| PEN DRIVE में हम AUDIO और VIDEO स्टोर कर सकते है जबकि फ़्लैश ड्राइव में AUDIO और VIDEO के साथ-साथ DATA भी STORE कर सकते है| इसे COMPUTER या LAPTOP में जोड़ने के लिए NOTIFICATION प्राप्त होता है|MEMORY CARD में भी फ़्लैश ड्राइव का इस्तेमाल होता है  लेकिन इसका इंटरफ़ेस दूसरा होताहै|

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montblanc meisterstuck watch strap Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (1838 – 1894) Posted November 23, 2012 by admin in Historical Figures

 

Through his writings, this man breathed a new passion and life into an entire civilisation, particularly his native region of Bengal, which became kindled with religious, nationalistic and artistic fervour after being infused with the powerful visions contained in his writings.

Born on 27 June 1838 in the Kantalpara district of Bengal, the first striking event we have of his life was that he mastered the alphabet as a child in a single sitting. This was an image and prophecy for the rest of his life.

Apart from the breathtaking legacy of his literary works – his life was quite “normal” and not in any way out of the ordinary. He was a man who never clamoured for place or power, but did his work in silence for the love of his work, even as nature does. And just because he had no aim but to give out the best that was in him to his people, he was able to create a language, a literature, a freedom struggle, and steer the course of history.

Bankim was 19 years of age when India’s First War of independence (known in the west as the “Sepoy Mutiny”) was waged. The following year (1858) India had lost the war. Bankim was finishing his studies at the time, and in that same year graduated from the University of Calcutta. The British authorities immediately appointed him to the post of Deputy Magistrate.

Young Bankim had suffered a shock in seeing the failure of India’s War of Independence. He could not rest until he knew why the great movement for liberation ended up being crushed in the manner in which it was, and that too with the help of many Indian’s themselves (most notably the Sikhs). In his effort to discover the causes of that failure he set his sharp intellect to the task of analysing the great problems that India was facing. Influenced and inspired by three great figures of that epoch, Raja Rammohan Roy, Iswarchandra Vidyasagar and Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi (the Hindu queen who led her soldiers against the British during the war) – he soon recognised the existence of a number of startling facts.

Foremost among these was that the people of India were fast becoming denationalised by English manners and customs, English fashions, and English whiskies and wines – not to mention the Christian missionaries (who had made Bengal their storm centre). The British government used their educational system to further this agenda (after abolishing and outlawing the traditional Indian education systems). Chatterji’s soul winced when he perceived that the Indian who spoke good English was more honoured by his own people than the man who spoke and wrote their own tongue exquisitely. Wherever he looked, he saw educated Indians jumping frantically on the bandwagon of British culture.

From the moment he had first learned to think for himself, Bankim realised that there was a titanic struggle ahead to reverse the trend and bring physical and cultural freedom to the sacred motherland. He felt that he had his own divinely ordained effort to make in this veritable battle – which he played silently and humbly. If India was to be uplifted, her children must once again create literature and language dynamic and inspiring to enlighten and inspire the entire people of India.

Soon, the profound effect of Chatterji’s novels and essays, with their compelling beauty, subtle humour and inspiring themes could be seen, firstly in Bengal and then spilling over into greater India. Indians who were nurtured on Shakespeare, Milton and Shelley began to read the works of Kalidas, Bhavabhuti, Chandidas and Vidyapula. They turned eagerly to the Puranas, Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita. Whereas before, elite Indians took pride in their knowledge of the Magna Carta strugle, the times of Oliver Cromwell and the tragedy of Charles the First, they began to relish the ballads of Rajasthan and Maharashtra. A new feeling was born. Millions began to hold their heads high once again and talk in terms of “our language”, “our literature”, “our history”, “our country”.

His Literary History

Bankim began his literary career with a desire to write in English, and wrote a novel called Rammohan’s Wife.” He at once realised his mistake with the realisation that the his work was much more natural and powerful in his own mother tongue.

The major novels he wrote were: Chandrashekhar, Kishna Kanta’s Will, Debi Chaudhurani, Sitaram, Indira, Kamal Kanta and Anandamath.

The last of these, Anandamath deserves special mention here. It wasn’t necessarily the best of Bankim Chandra’s works, though still great in its own right. Yet because of its astonishing political consequences, with no other of his works is Bankim so closely identified.

The Anandamath story is set in 18th century India, when a group of warrior sannyasis mounted a guerilla war against Muslim rule (based on a true historical attempt by sannyasis to do precisely this). It was a riveting story line with amazing characters and meaningful dialogues. Yet more importantly, hundreds of thousands of Indians (primarily Hindus) took the story as a metaphor for their own present day situation, understanding it as a call to arms to drive the new tyrants (the British) away from the sacred soil. Indeed, the main revolutionary group in Bengal chose its name as that of the sannyasin group from Anandamath. The most important and widely known section of this book was the poem “Vande Mataram” which means “Hail to the Mother(land)”. The song became the battle cry for India’s freedom struggle. It was set to become India’s National Anthem, but was rejected because a section of Muslims considered the song as idolatrous due to its metaphor comparing India to the tiger-borne Goddess Durga “with instruments of punishment in each of her ten hands”. To placate the Muslims (and Jawahalal Nehru) the constituent assembly rejected it as the National Anthem. Incidentally, Rabindranath Tagore, the great poet whose “Jana Gana” eventually became India’s National Anthem had stated on several occasions that he desired very much that Bankim Chandra’s “Vande Mataram” should become the National Anthem of free India. For example, in 1928, he said in an interview with Mulk Raj Ananda “I share his ideas of inheriting the past – if made relevant for the present! Bankim Chandra is our master in this respect. In our school here, students sing “Bande Mataram” every morning…..I hope it becomes the national anthem of free India!”

Bankim Chandra’s Anandamath demonstrated the most powerful example in modern history of how art can affect real life to a tremendous extent – especially in an artistically orientated civilisation like that of the Hindus.

Towards the end of his life, Bankim Chandra turned his attention to write about spirituality – the very essence of Hindu civilisation. A Life of Krishna and a book on the Essence of Religion, a rendering of the Bhagavad Gita and a commentary on the Vedas were his aims to give to his fellow countrymen. The first two he managed to complete, and the rendering of the Bhagavad Gita was three parts finished, but the commentary on the Vedas, which should have been a priceless possession, never got into the stage of execution. Death, in whose shadow he had so long dwelt, with his ailing health, took the pen from his hand before he could accomplish this feat. Yet his contributions to literature are enough to immortalise his memory.

Vande Mataram!

Vande Mataram is the national song of India. The song was composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

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The Faculty Regina Abrami Director, Lauder Global Program Head, Lauder International Studies Faculty Senior Lecturer, Political Science Senior Fellow, Management Department, Wharton 215-898-9249 Email Twitter

When she came to Lauder from the faculty of Harvard Business School – where she was faculty chair of the inaugural MBA Immersion Experience Program (IXP) and Senior Fellow in Asian Business and Globalization, among other appointments held over 11 years – Regina Abrami brought extensive teaching and research experience and demonstrated expertise in political economy and business in China and Vietnam. Throughout her career, Regina has been invited to give expert testimony and talks at places such as the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, the World Bank, and the U.S. Department of Defense. In addition, she has received support from the Social Science Research Council, the Committee on Scholarly Communication with China, the Institute of World Politics, and Fulbright. Regina earned a Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of California, Berkeley. She has lived and conducted research in several Asian countries, and her academic work has been published in multiple university-press–edited volumes. Harvard Business School Press published Can China Lead? Reaching the Limits of Power and Growth, co-authored with William C. Kirby and F. Warren McFarlan, in 2014.

Read Bio Moira Alvarez Lecturer in Spanish Faculty, Lauder Spanish Language and Culture Program 215-898-6314 Email

Moira Alvarez holds the degree Licenciada en Letras (BA in Linguistics and Literature) from the University of Buenos Aires (Argentina), and received an MA in Hispanic Studies (2009) and a PhD (2015) from Temple University. Her work takes a Cultural Studies approach to issues in contemporary Latin American literature and film. She has taught Spanish language and culture at several different institutions in Argentina and the US, including the University of Buenos Aires, Temple University, the University of Pennsylvania, Haverford College and Bryn Mawr College.

Moira has collaborated with the Lauder Institute since 2006 in different capacities, as a tutor, academic assistant and instructor. As member of the Lauder faculty, Moira’s objectives are to help students to learn about, understand, and discuss critical cultural topics from the Spanish speaking countries. In addition, her double certification as tester for the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) and Writing Proficiency Test (WPT) by the Council of Teaching Foreign Languages (ACTFL) allows her to enhance students’ language proficiency.

Read Bio Claire Babanoury Lecturer in Foreign Languages in French Director, Lauder French Language and Culture Program 215-746-2183 Email

Asked what drew Claire Babanoury to teach at Lauder in 1999, she answered “the mix of nationalities, the amazing professional experiences within the faculty and student body, and the declared and concerted will to look at language and culture as the quintessential elements underlying human actions in today’s globalized business world.” What prepared her to teach her was a world-class education and her depth of experience in applying what she has learned. Her pre-Lauder experience includes teaching language and business language courses in the Department of Romance Languages at the University of Pennsylvania and working in Brussels, Belgium, as a translator for the Commission of the European Union (ACP-EC Lome II Convention negotiations), as well as for other international organizations. Her two master’s degrees – one in Language and Translation (Ecole d’Interprètes Internationaux, Mons, Belgium) and the other in Teaching French as a Foreign Language (Université Stendhal in Grenoble) – ground her expertise in the speaking, reading, and teaching of French. Multilingual, she earned her bachelor’s degree in English and German Languages and Literatures (University of Saint-Etienne). Since 2006, she has served as Penn’s Business Languages Group Coordinator.

Read Bio Maria Bourlatskaya Lecturer in Foreign Languages in Russian Director, Lauder Russian Language and Culture Program 215-746-2186 Email

Maria Bourlatskaya has been teaching at Lauder been lecturing in the University of Pennsylvania’s Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures since 1992. She also serves as Director of Lauder’s Russian Language and Culture Program and Russian Summer Immersion Program. Perhaps part of the secret of her long, successful career is that, as she puts it, “the flow of ideas arising from the varied cultural backgrounds and educational experience of both the faculty and the students provides a constant intellectual stimulus and an invaluable source of learning.” As for her own cultural and educational background, Maria holds an M.A. in Philology from Moscow State University and a Ph.D. in Russian Literature from the University of Pennsylvania, as well as a Management Certification from Wharton. Before coming to Lauder, she taught Russian as a foreign language at the USSR Academy of Sciences and worked as a Research Associate at the Center for Soviet and East European Studies.

Read Bio María del Milagro Lozada Cerna Director, Lauder Language and Culture Programs Head, Language and Culture Faculty Director, Spanish Program 215-746-2173 Email María del Milagro Lozada Cerna, or Mili for short, has a Ph. D. in Hispanic Studies from Temple University, an M.A. in Communication Sciences from Universidad Católica de Santa María, Peru, and a Marketing Certification from Wharton School of Business, University of Pennsylvania. At the Lauder Institute since 2011, Mili previously taught classes in Spanish language, Hispanic literature and culture, and business practices at various institutions, including Temple University, the University of Canterbury (New Zealand), and the University of Pennsylvania.  Her research interest interests are primarily contemporary applied linguistics, Spanish-American narrative, film studies, and cultural Studies.

As a member of the Lauder Institute faculty, she strives to enhance not only students’ knowledge of Spanish as a language but also their understanding of the diverse cultures, contexts, and countries in which Spanish is spoken.

 

Read Bio Frederick Dickinson Co-Director, The Lauder Institute Professor of History, University of Pennsylvania School of Arts & Sciences 215-898-2766 Email

Frederick R. Dickinson is Professor of Japanese History and co-director of the Lauder Institute. Born in Tokyo and raised in Kanazawa and Kyoto, Japan, he teaches courses on modern Japan and empire and nation in modern East Asia. He holds an M.A. in International Politics from Kyoto University (Kyoto, Japan, 1986) and an M.A. (1987) and Ph.D. (1993) in History from Yale University. He has received grants from the Japanese Ministry of Education, the Fulbright Commission and the Japan Foundation and was a National Fellow at the Hoover Institution (Stanford University, 2000–01) and Visiting Research Scholar at the International Research Center for Japanese Studies (Kyoto, 2011–12). He has held visiting professorships at Swarthmore College, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium), Kyoto University and Kwansei Gakuin University and has served as Acting Director of the Center for East Asian Studies at Penn (2008–09). He is the author of War and National Reinvention: Japan in the Great War, 1914–1919 (Harvard, 1999), Taisho Tenno (Taisho Emperor, Minerva, 2009 [in Japanese]) and World War I and the Triumph of the New Japan, 1919–1930 (Cambridge, 2013).

Read Bio Anand K. Dwivedi Lecturer in Hindi Director, Lauder Hindi Language and Culture Program 215-898-8947 Email

Anand K. Dwivedi began teaching at Lauder in 2013, the year the Hindi language and culture program was introduced. Prior to his arrival at Lauder, he was Associate Director at the South Asia Center, Syracuse University. He earned an M.Phil. in Linguistics (University of Delhi) and an M.A. in Linguistics (University of Delhi) before starting his career teaching Hindi to Korean and American students and working as a faculty member on study abroad programs of American universities. He later taught Hindi at the University of Virginia and the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, Calif., where he also served as a language specialist for the Institute’s assessment projects. His work on material development projects for the ACTFL’s Heritage Learners is just one of many platforms he has used for his own professional development in the field of foreign language pedagogy. As a teacher, his goal is to make language instruction culturally rich and pedagogically effective through innovative, technology-driven instructional design. Dwivedi’s areas of interest include issues of language and education, inclusive growth, environment, rural empowerment and sustainable agriculture. He also enjoys Hindi literature and listening to Indian music and ghazals.

Read Bio Ann Farnsworth-Alvear Associate Professor of History 215-898-5704

Ann Farnsworth-Alvear teaches Latin American History and directs the Program in Latin American Studies in the School of Arts & Sciences. She holds a B.A. from William and Mary and a Ph.D. from Duke University. In her book Dulcinea in the Factory: Myths, Morals, Men and Women in Colombia’s Industrial Experiment, 1905-1960, published by Duke University Press in 2000, she combines her interest in working-class history, gender studies, and oral history in modern and colonial Latin America. Ann has received both the Allan Sharlin Prize of the Social Science History Association and the Bolton-Johnson Prize of the Conference on Latin American History. Her current research focuses on the Colombian Choco and the history of race in Latin America.

Read Bio Jesus Fernández-Villaverde Professor of Economics 215-898-1504

Jesus Fernández-Villaverde is a Professor of Economics in Penn’s School of Arts & Sciences. Born and raised in Spain, he moved to the U.S. to complete a Ph.D. in Economics at the University of Minnesota after receiving his B.Sc. in Economics and Management and his B.J. in Law from ICADE in Madrid. Jesus has taught at Duke University, and he has been a visiting professor at both NYU and Yale. He has also served as a consultant for the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia. In Spain, Jesus directed a research group on macroeconomics for the Prime Minister’s Economic Office and served as Research Associate Chair for FEDEA, the Foundation for the Study of Applied Economics. He has received the IX Herrero Prize for an Outstanding Economist in Spain under 40, as well as the Kravis Award for Distinction in Undergraduate Teaching from the University of Pennsylvania, among other honors. Jesus has been at Penn since 2001. His main areas of research are macroeconomics, econometrics, and economic history. In economic history, he studies the interaction between institutions, economics, and political arrangements from a global and comparative perspective.

Read Bio Angelika Führich 2015 German Summer Program Director (Germany and Turkey)

Recognized for distinction in teaching, Angelika taught at the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Iowa, Smith College, Bryn Mawr College, and the Ohio State University, where she received the University Award for Distinguished Teaching. She has also taught at and served as Director of the School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University since 2000, where she developed and directed the SAIS German Studies Summer Program, for which she received a grant through the German government’s Transatlantik-Programm . Angelika holds a Ph.D. in German Literature from the University of Pennsylvania, an M.A. in German Linguistics and German Literature from the Ohio State University, and a B.A. in German History, Social Studies, German Linguistics and Literature from Universität Augsburg in Germany.

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Read Bio Fernanda Guida Lecturer in Portuguese Director, Lauder Portuguese Language and Culture Program 215-898-1285 Email

Before she joined the Lauder Institute in 2015, Fernanda Guida was a visiting professor and the Overseas Coordinator of the Portuguese Flagship Program at the University of Georgia (UGA). She taught Portuguese language and culture at UGA and at UFSJ in Brazil. She holds a Ph.D. and an M.A. in Romance Languages from UGA, where she received two awards: 1) the Presidential Honors Recognition for Academic Credentials and Outstanding Contributions and 2) the Outstanding Teaching Award. She is the co-author of a forthcoming book chapter, “Maximizing Oral Proficiency Development via Telecollaborative Partnerships in the Portuguese Flagship Program,” which she wrote with fellow UGA professors. Fernanda’s main academic interests include Brazilian literature, foreign language education, and film studies. She believes that learning foreign languages must go beyond the grammatical components of the language and include exposure to various spheres of communication by crossing borders and exchanging culture and ideas.

Read Bio Mauro Guillén Director, The Lauder Institute 215-573-6267 Email Twitter

Mauro F. Guillén is the Anthony L. Davis Director of the Joseph H. Lauder Institute at Penn. He holds the Dr. Felix Zandman Endowed Professorship in International Management at the Wharton School and a secondary appointment as Professor of Sociology in the Department of Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania. He received a Ph.D. in sociology from Yale University and a Doctorate in political economy from the University of Oviedo in his native Spain. His current research deals with emerging-market multinationals, and with the impact of globalization on patterns of organization and on the diffusion of innovations. His most recent books are Global Turning Points (Cambridge University Press), The New Multinationals (Cambridge University Press), and The Taylorized Beauty of the Mechanical (Princeton University Press). He serves on the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on Emerging Multinationals and as a trustee of the Fundación Princesa de Asturias. He is an elected fellow of the Sociological Research Association, and a winner of the Aspen Institute’s Faculty Pioneer Award. He was a member of the University of Oviedo’s team that won the National University Basketball Championship of Spain in 1987.

Read Bio Deborah Harrold Senior Lecturer, Department of Political Science and Professional and Liberal Education, College of Liberal and Professional Studies Email

As an economic field researcher in Algeria in the early 1990s, Deborah Harrold learned quickly that political, cultural, economic, and religious issues are inextricably bound together. One of her research trips was based around supposedly uncontroversial economic issues, but Deborah found that, in the midst of a political struggle that was quickly spiraling into civil war, the politicization of economic ideas had cast Islamists and liberal economists together as a danger to the regime in power. Now, as a lecturer in political science and history, Deborah emphasizes the interrelationships between history, politics, and economy, especially in the Middle East. Deborah holds a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Chicago. Deborah’s research and teaching interests include economic policy in the Middle East and the history of economic ideas in the region – interests that developed out of her research experiences in North Africa.

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After teaching at Princeton University and Bryn Mawr College, Theresa Jen joined the Lauder faculty in 2000 as a lecturer in the Chinese Language and Culture Program, which she now directs. She has received a Ph.D. in Language Acquisition and Sociolinguistics from Rutgers University and an M.A. in East Asian Studies and Cross-Culture Studies from Seton Hall University. She has been invited to speak at international conferences in Shanghai, Beijing, Seoul, and elsewhere, and was the recipient of a Fulbright Scholarship after completing her undergraduate studies. Theresa holds appointments with the U.S. Board of Examiners for the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, and with the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Proficiency Committee in China, where she serves as chair. Theresa’s professional interests include diplomacy, international studies, and sociolinguistics. She has published several textbooks, including Chinese Culture ABC, co-authored with Robert DiYanni and published by Shangwu Press, Beijing.

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Read Bio Emiko Nagatomo Lecturer in Japanese Director, Lauder Japanese Language and Culture Program 215-746-3154 Email

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Read Bio Seung-Youn Oh Regional Director, 2017 East and Southeast Asia Summer Program Assistant Professor of Political Science, Bryn Mawr College

Seung-Youn Oh is an assistant professor of Political Science at Bryn Mawr College, specializing in international relations and comparative politics in East Asia. At Lauder, she serves as a Regional Director of East and Southeast Asia Summer Program . She has been a visiting professor at the Shanghai branch of École Supérieure des Sciences Commerciales, teaching “Doing Business in China” and “China and the World: Geo-political and geo-economic implications of China’s Rise” since 2009. Her broader research interests include China’s industrial restructuring and upgrading, state-owned enterprise reform, the effects of national origin of foreign direct investment on local economic development, as well as China’s compliance pattern with international legal agreements. She was a research fellow at the East West Center in Honolulu (2016-2017) and at the East Asia Institute in Seoul, Korea (2014-2015). She was a post-doctoral fellow at the Center for the Study of Contemporary China at the University of Pennsylvania (2012-2013) and was a visiting scholar at the Chinese Academy of Social Science in Beijing (2009-2010). She has lived and conducted research in various Chinese cities including Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin and Hong Kong. She holds an M.A. and Ph.D in Political Science from the University of California at Berkeley and a B.A. in Political Science as valedictorian from Yonsei University in Korea.

Read Bio Xiaolin Peng Lecturer in Mandarin Chinese Faculty, Lauder Chinese Language and Culture Program 215-876-2182 Email

Born and raised in the ancient city of Nanjing, China, Xiaolin Peng developed an interest in the study of different languages and cultures at an early age. She came to the U.S. to attend the University of Georgia, where she earned her M.S. Ed in Teaching Foreign Languages, and she is currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Educational Linguistics from the University of Pennsylvania. Xiaolin has been teaching at Lauder since 2009, and in 2014 she joined the faculty as a lecturer in Mandarin Chinese in the Chinese Language and Culture Program. Prior to Lauder, she taught English as a foreign language and Chinese at universities, private language schools, and non-profit organizations. According to Xiaolin, language teaching and learning is “an interactive process that should involve the use of meaningful, goal-oriented communicative tasks.”

Read Bio Eva Recio Lecturer in Spanish Faculty, Lauder Spanish Language and Culture Program 2015 Spanish Summer Program Director (Peru) 215-573-9707 Email

Eva Recio joined the Lauder Institute faculty in 2011 after teaching at Independence Charter School, the Romance Language Department of the University of Pennsylvania, and Saint Joseph’s University. She holds a B.A. and an M.A. in History from Universidad de Salamanca and Universiteit van Amsterdam, respectively, as well as a M. Ed. in Teaching Spanish as a Second Language from Saint Joseph’s University and a Spanish Teaching Certification from the Pennsylvania Department of Education. Eva’s professional interests include bilingual education, heritage students’ language teaching, and intercultural education. She is currently pursuing a M. Ed. in Educational Entrepreneurship from the University of Pennsylvania.

Read Bio Susanne Shields Lecturer in Foreign Languages in German Director, Lauder German Language and Culture Program 215-746-3155 Email

Susanne Shields joined Lauder in 1993 as a language instructor during the German Summer Immersion program. A year later, she started directing the Lauder German Language and Culture Program and has done so ever since. Professor Shields has a Ph.D. in German Literature (University of Pennsylvania), an M.A. in German Languages and Literature (Penn State University), and a Degree in Pedagogy (Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt). She is also certified to conduct the ACTFL OPI (Oral Proficiency Interview) and WPT (Written Proficiency Test). Before she came to the Lauder Institute, Professor Shields taught courses as a teaching assistant in the Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures at Penn State University while she pursued her master’s degree (1982-1986). After graduating from Penn State, she worked as a teaching assistant and lecturer in the Department of Germanic Languages at the University of Pennsylvania. Professor Shield’s main academic interest is in cross-cultural communication, and she has focused her research on the relationship between foreign-language study and cultural understanding in the business context. She continues to teach courses at the Department of Germanic Languages at the University of Pennsylvania.

Read Bio Ramya Sreenivasan Chair, Department of South Asia Studies, University of Pennsylvania Associate Professor, South Asia Studies Email

As chair of the South Asia Studies Department and South Asia Language Coordinator, Ramya’s research interests include early modern South Asia; religion and caste in early modern Rajasthan; colonialism and modernity; and gender history. She holds a Ph.D. from Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi and is the author of The Many Lives of a Rajput Queen: Heroic Pasts in Indian History c. 1500-1900, for which she received the 2009 Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy Prize for the Best Book in South Asian Studies. She has also been the recipient of the Baldy Center for Law and Social Policy’s Annual Research Grant at the University of Buffalo Law School, where she teaches South Asian history, and she has served as the Chair of the South Asia Council for the Association for Asian Studies.

Read Bio Joseph W. Westphal Senior Global Fellow

Ambassador Joseph W. Westphal has had a long and distinguished career in government and academia. Dr. Westphal was sworn in as the U.S. Ambassador to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on March 26, 2014.

Prior to this appointment, Ambassador Westphal was the Under Secretary of the Army and its Chief Management Officer from 2009 to 2014. He also held the positions of Assistant Secretary of the Army from 1998 to 2000 and Acting Secretary of the Army in 2001.

Dr. Westphal began his career in 1975 as a professor of political science at Oklahoma State University and later served as a Department Head. In 2002 he became the Chancellor of the University of Maine System and Professor of Political Science. He also served as Director of the Tishman Environmental Center and Provost at the New School University in New York and Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University in Washington D.C.

In government, he worked in both the House and Senate for more than twelve years.  He has held positions in the administrations of Presidents Carter, Reagan, Clinton, Bush, and Obama, working in the Department of the Interior, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Defense.

Ambassador Westphal received a B.A. from Adelphi University (1970), an M.A. from Oklahoma State University (1973), and his Ph.