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flyers penguins game tickets wiki How to Speak English Five Methods: Getting the Basics Down Getting Familiar with the Grammar Maintaining Progress Using Your Resources Sample Cheat Sheets Community Q&A

English is a widely-spoken language. It can be difficult to learn, but there are some things you can do to make it easier. This wikiHow will offer lots of tips that may help you learn to speak English.

10 Second Summary

1. Learn the grammar, including the tenses, adjectives, and nouns.
2. Try labeling everything and keep an eye on pronunciation.
3. Consider getting a good dictionary as well.
4. Watch TV, listen to songs, and read books in English.
5. Practice thinking in English.

Steps Method 1 Getting the Basics Down 1 Start simple . Very few people are true beginners when it comes to English. "Hello," "hi," "How are you?" and numerals have infiltrated most societies. Odds are you know more English than you think. Take what you know. For example, "How are you?" That uses the verb "to be." What are other questions just like this? Take what you know and expand it! How is she?

How is your father?

How are your children?

How is the weather? Start memorizing verbs. The top ten most common verbs in English are the following: "be," "have," "do," "say," "get," "make," "go," "know," "take," and "see." [1] Just knowing these verbs can get you through a lot of basic conversations. English is subject-verb-object, in that order. Your subject pronouns are: "I," "you," "he"/"she"/"it," "we," "you," "they." Object pronouns in English are: "me," "you," "him"/"her"/"it," "us," "you," "them." With those verbs and knowing English is SVO, what sentences can you come up with? I know her.

She makes it.

He takes us. 2 Practice conversations. Once you have basic subject and object pronouns down and a handful of verbs, you can start asking questions. Questions often open with "who," "what," "when," "where," "why," and "how." "Who" indicates a person; "what" indicates a thing; "when" indicates a time; "where" indicates a place; "why" indicates a reason; "how" indicates a manner. Say you know the subjects, some basic nouns, those ten verbs, and these question starters. What are some things you could ask an English speaker? What is your name?

What do you do?

When is your birthday?

Where is she?

Why do you have it?

How do you know? Method 2 Getting Familiar with the Grammar 1 Start with the present tenses . Let's start with present simple and present continuous: Present simple is used for facts and habits. If you are describing something that is true or something that happens often, opt for the present simple. I go to work every day.

She eats breakfast at 7.

China is a big country. Present continuous is used for things that are happening right now. There are two verbs: a helper and a main verb. The helper is "am"/"is"/"are" (depending on the subject) and the main verb is any verb with -ing: You are reading.

I am typing.

He is watching TV. 2 Move to the past and future tenses . Once you've mastered the present, get started on the past and future tenses. We're just going to go over the basic ones now: Use the past simple for any event that happened in the past at a specific time. I saw that movie last year.

She died on a plane.

We went to the bank yesterday. For the future, let's keep it simple. Add a future time marker, and just use the present continuous! It can double as a future tense, too. They are making a cake tomorrow.

You are leaving in May.

I am going at 6 pm. 3 Put your adjectives before nouns. Always, always, always put the adjective (the word that describes) before the noun. Always! In fact, there's even an order within adjectives: There are eight basic types of adjectives: opinion, size, age, shape, color, origin, material, and purpose. If you have more than one, they go in that order [2] . So, it's a "huge, round, metal bowl" or a "small, red sleeping bag." Method 3 Maintaining Progress 1 Label everything. Take the objects in your house and label them with their English equivalent. The goal is to get your mind thinking in English. When it's right there, it'll be impossible to ignore. When you've labeled everything and find yourself thinking, "Where is my blanket?" try to think of the word (or sentence) in English. When you find your blanket, were you right? Don't write on the objects--grab a slip of paper and tape it on sturdily. 2 Keep an eye on your pronunciation. It's very easy to get caught up in memorizing words when pronunciation can be just as important. Unfortunately, English has exceptions to most rules. But there are still some general guidelines you can abide by: Always say the last sounds in the word. Certain Asian dialects find this rather difficult. If you know you're guilty of this, keep it in mind. "Streets" is not pronounced stree . The "ts" is very important in retaining meaning. Take the sentence "I project the project will end soon." Confusing, huh? Isn't English SVO? Yes, and this sentence is too. The first "project" (verb) is pronounced pro-JECT ; the second (noun) is pronounced PRO-ject . The same is true for all verb-noun pairs: nouns stress the first syllable, verbs the second. Though there are definite exceptions, most nouns in English have the first syllable stressed. Think of the nouns in your house: "BED-room," "BATH-room," "KITCH-en," "TA-ble," "WIN-dow," "SO-fa," "WA-ter," "JACK-et," "TOI-let," etc. 3 Pick a dialect. There are meaningful differences between American , British , and Australian English . Before you go about increasing your vocabulary, which one appeals to you? Sometimes it's very important to know who you're speaking to. If you tell an American , Canadian, or Australian you're not wearing pants, they might wonder if you're wearing shorts, a dress, a skirt, or just in your underwear. If you tell a British person you're not wearing pants, you're going commando! In addition to vocabulary differences, the pronunciation differences are huge. Know these variations exist before you get confused with multiple correct pronunciations. Certain dictionaries use British English and certain dictionaries prefer American. Choose the one that's best for you. Method 4 Using Your Resources 1 Get a good dictionary . If you need to, get several. A dictionary to translate between your first language and English is best, in addition to a dictionary in English only. Get a pocket-sized version for when you're on the go and that pesky word you keep forgetting comes up. 2 Speak in English with native speakers . Though it may be tempting to speak with your other friends who are learning too, you'll see the quickest results if you converse mainly with native speakers. Hire a tutor or private teacher. Make sure they're native and have the accent you want. Choose someone with teaching experience--just because you can speak a language does not mean you can teach it. If a teacher isn't up your alley, get a penpal! 3 Use the internet . There are literally hundreds upon hundreds of sites you can use to your benefit. Anything to make grammar more exciting is welcome--there are games and videos galore. Such resources can be found at Simple English Wikipedia [3] , the British Council [4] , and English Club [5] , among many others. YouTube doesn't have to be about funny animals and popular music. Tap into its educational resources as well. 4 Watch TV , listen to songs , and read books . Though your goal is to speak English, you have to be able to understand it, too! Even when you're alone and not stuck in a grammar exercise you can keep your mind primed. Start with children's books and TV shows. The language is simpler and will go slower. Eventually, move to channels catered to your interests. If you enjoy cooking, graduate to the Food Network and see what you can pick up on. Try not to turn on the captions! If you have a DVR, record the shows. That way you can go back and work through the dialogue and conversations at your own pace. Listen to English music! Ballads go quite slowly and the refrains can be rather repetitive. Your vocabulary will naturally expand, too. 5 Think in English. If you find yourself thinking something simple in you native tongue, what would its equivalent be in English? Make a habit of this for maintenance and memory. Think out loud if helps. Explain to your roommates or family what you're trying to do; maybe they'll want to catch on, too! Eventually, simple phrases will become par for the course. Sample Cheat Sheets Sample English Expressions

Sample English Verb Conjugations

Spelling Tips and Tricks

Community Q&A Search Add New Question I easily know what they say, but I have a problem answering, what can I do? wikiHow Contributor Take your time and frame the sentence in your mind. Then, speak clearly and confidently so that they can understand. Don't worry about pronunciation or vocabulary; this will come with practice. Thanks! Yes No Not Helpful 4 Helpful 36 How can I possibly speak English quickly? Donagan Just keep practicing. You will gradually surprise yourself by getting faster. Thanks! Yes No Not Helpful 0 Helpful 8 When watching T.V., does turning on subtitles help? wikiHow Contributor Yes, using subtitles can help you learn faster. However, if you want to fine-tune your listening skills, you'll need to turn off the subtitles so can focus on your auditory processing. Thanks! Yes No Not Helpful 5 Helpful 26 How can I find a native speaker? wikiHow Contributor It depends on where you live. If you live in an English speaking country, then it would be easier for you to find a native speaker. But assuming you're from non-English speaking country, then you might search for some classes or courses held by a good native speaker or equivalent. Now, if you are unable to do the above things, then you might probably end up on an online language exchanging website. Thanks! Yes No Not Helpful 1 Helpful 6 How can I write the best article in English? wikiHow Contributor Use Google translate, then check using Microsoft. Further check using Grammerly. Ask an English-speaking person to check the essay later. Read a novel or article in English and compare; do you see any errors between the article/novel and your own article? Thanks! Yes No Not Helpful 2 Helpful 2 Ask a Question 200 characters left Submit Already answered Not a question Bad question Other If this question (or a similar one) is answered twice in this section, please click here to let us know. Tips Try to practice speaking English in your daily life. Practice every day. A language will not become second nature if it is a free time hobby. Don't use your dictionary all the time. You will find yourself on the same page an hour later and very frustrated. Try to work off of context and only use your dictionary when you absolutely must. Learning English requires a lot of practice and determination. It takes a long time, as with any language, to become good at it. Read the newspaper daily. When you don't know the meaning of a word, look it up in the dictionary. There are a total of 23 helping verbs: am, is, are, was, were, being, been, be, have, had, has, do, does, did, shall, should, will, would, may, might, must, can, and could. Edit Related wikiHows

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Learn English Faster Sources and Citations ↑ http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/common-verbs-25.htm ↑ http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/grammar/adjord.htm ↑ http://simple.wikipedia.org ↑ http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/ ↑ http://www.englishclub.com/learn-english.htm Show more... (2)

Edit this page Read in another language India–Pakistan relations   (Redirected from Indo-Pakistani relations )

Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events. Relations between the two states have been defined by the violent partition of British India in 1947, the Kashmir conflict and the numerous military conflicts fought between the two nations. Consequently, their relationship has been plagued by hostility and suspicion. Northern India and Pakistan somewhat overlap in areas of certain demographics , shared lingua francas (mainly Punjabi and Hindustani ) and shared cuisines inherited from the Mughal Empire .

India–Pakistan relations
Pakistan
India Diplomatic Mission High Commission of Pakistan, New Delhi High Commission of India, Islamabad Envoy Pakistan High Commissioner
Sohail Mahmood Indian High Commissioner
Gautam Bambawale

After the dissolution of the British Raj in 1947, two new sovereign nations were formed—the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan . The subsequent partition of the former British India displaced up to 12.5 million people, with estimates of loss of life varying from several hundred thousand to 1 million. [1] India emerged as a secular nation with a Hindu majority population and a large Muslim minority , while Pakistan emerged also as a secular nation with an overwhelming Muslim majority population; later becoming an Islamic republic [2] [3] although its constitution guarantees freedom of religion to people of all faiths. [4]

Soon after their independence, India and Pakistan established diplomatic relations but the violent partition and numerous territorial claims would overshadow their relationship. Since their Independence, the two countries have fought three major wars , one undeclared war and have been involved in numerous armed skirmishes and military standoffs. The Kashmir conflict is the main centre-point of all of these conflicts with the exception of the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 and Bangladesh Liberation War , which resulted in the secession of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh ).

There have been numerous attempts to improve the relationship—notably, the Shimla summit , the Agra summit and the Lahore summit . Since the early 1980s, relations between the two nations soured particularly after the Siachen conflict , the intensification of Kashmir insurgency in 1989, Indian and Pakistani nuclear tests in 1998 and the 1999 Kargil war . Certain confidence-building measures — such as the 2003 ceasefire agreement and the Delhi–Lahore Bus service – were successful in de-escalating tensions. However, these efforts have been impeded by periodic terrorist attacks. The 2001 Indian Parliament attack almost brought the two nations to the brink of a nuclear war . The 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings , which killed 68 civilians (most of whom were Pakistani), was also a crucial point in relations. Additionally, the 2008 Mumbai attacks carried out by Pakistani militants [5] resulted in a severe blow to the ongoing India-Pakistan peace talks.

After a brief thaw following the election of new governments in both nations, bilateral discussions again stalled after the 2016 Pathankot attack . [6] In September 2016, a terrorist attack on an Indian military base in Indian-administered Kashmir, the deadliest such attack in years, killed 19 Indian Army soldiers. India's claim that the attack had been orchestrated by a Pakistan-supported jihadist group was denied by Pakistan, which claimed the attack had been a local reaction to unrest in the region due to excessive force by Indian security personnel. The attack sparked a military confrontation across the Line of Control, with an escalation in ceasefire violations and further militant attacks on Indian security forces . As of December 2016, the ongoing confrontation and an increase in nationalist rhetoric on both sides has resulted in the collapse of bilateral relations, with little expectation they will recover. [7] [8]

Since the election of new governments in both India and Pakistan in the early 2010s, some steps have been taken to improve relations, in particular developing a consensus on the agreement of Non-Discriminatory Market Access on Reciprocal Basis (NDMARB) status for each other, which will liberalize trade. [9] In November 2015, the new Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi and Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif agreed to the resumption of bilateral talks; the following month, Prime Minister Modi made a brief, unscheduled visit to Pakistan while en route to India, becoming the first Indian Prime Minister to visit Pakistan since 2004. [10] Despite those efforts, relations between the countries have remained frigid, following repeated acts of cross-border terrorism. According to a 2017 BBC World Service poll, only 5% of Indians view Pakistan's influence positively, with 85% expressing a negative view, while 11% of Pakistanis view India's influence positively, with 62% expressing a negative view. [11]

Contents

Seeds of conflict during independence   Jinnah and Gandhi engaged in a heated conversation. A well-known photograph recently attributed to Kulwant Roy .

About half a million Muslims and Hindus were killed in communal riots following the partition of British India . Millions of Muslims living in India and Hindus and Sikhs living in Pakistan emigrated in one of the most colossal transfers of population in the modern era. Both countries accused each other of not providing adequate security to the minorities emigrating through their territory. This served to increase tensions between the newly-born countries.

According to the British plan for the partition of British India, all the 680 princely states were allowed to decide which of the two countries to join. With the exception of a few, most of the Muslim-majority princely-states acceded to Pakistan while most of the Hindu-majority princely states joined India. However, the decisions of some of the princely-states would shape the Pakistan-India relationship considerably in the years to come.

Junagadh issue   Junagadh is one of the modern districts of Saurastra , Gujarat

Junagadh was a state on the south-western end of Gujarat , with the principalities of Manavadar , Mangrol and Babriawad . It was not contiguous to Pakistan and other states physically separated it from Pakistan. The state had an overwhelming Hindu population which constituted more than 80% of its citizens, while its ruler, Nawab Mahabat Khan , was a Muslim. Mahabat Khan acceded to Pakistan on 15 August 1947. Pakistan confirmed the acceptance of the accession on 15 September 1947.

India did not accept the accession as legitimate. The Indian point of view was that Junagadh was not contiguous to Pakistan, that the Hindu majority of Junagadh wanted it to be a part of India, and that the state was surrounded by Indian territory on three sides.

The Pakistani point of view was that since Junagadh had a ruler and governing body who chose to accede to Pakistan, it should be allowed to do so. Also, because Junagadh had a coastline, it could have maintained maritime links with Pakistan even as an enclave within India.

Neither of the states was able to resolve this issue amicably and it only added fuel to an already charged environment. Sardar Patel , India's Home Minister , felt that if Junagadh was permitted to go to Pakistan, it would create communal unrest across Gujarat. The government of India gave Pakistan time to void the accession and hold a plebiscite in Junagadh to pre-empt any violence in Gujarat. Samaldas Gandhi formed a government-in-exile, the Arzi Hukumat (in Urdu : Arzi : Transitional, Hukumat : Government) of the people of Junagadh. Patel ordered the annexation of Junagadh's three principalities.

India cut off supplies of fuel and coal to Junagadh, severed air and postal links, sent troops to the frontier, and occupied the principalities of Mangrol and Babariawad that had acceded to India. [12] On 26 October, Nawab of Junagadh and his family fled to Pakistan following clashes with Indian troops. On 7 November, Junagadh's court, facing collapse, invited the Government of India to take over the State's administration. The Dewan of Junagadh, Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto , the father of the more famous Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto , decided to invite the Government of India to intervene and wrote a letter to Mr. Buch, the Regional Commissioner of Saurashtra in the Government of India to this effect. [13] The Government of Pakistan protested. The Government of India rejected the protests of Pakistan and accepted the invitation of the Dewan to intervene. [14] Indian troops occupied Junagadh on 9 November 1947. In February 1948, a plebiscite held almost unanimously voted for accession to India.

Kashmir conflict Main article: Kashmir conflict

Kashmir was a Muslim-majority princely state, ruled by a Hindu king, Maharaja Hari Singh . At the time of the partition of India , Maharaja Hari Singh, the ruler of the state, preferred to remain independent and did not want to join either the Union of India or the Dominion of Pakistan . He wanted both India and Pakistan to recognise his princely state as an independent neutral country. [15]

Despite the standstill agreement with Pakistan, teams of Pakistani forces were dispatched into Kashmir in response to the Hindu Maharajah's attempted genocide of Muslims in the state. The Maharajah of Kashmir attempted to change the predominantly Muslim demographics of his state by engaging in an ethnic cleansing of Muslims from the Jammu section of his state, [16] as his state forces massacred thousands of Muslims in Jammu and expelled thousands more from their homes in an effort to shift the population ratio in favour of Hindus. [17] This precipitated a revolt by the Muslims in the Poonch district of Jammu and Kashmir against the Hindu Maharajah. [18] Backed by Pakistani paramilitary forces, Pashtun Mehsud tribals [19] invaded Kashmir in October 1947 under the code name " Operation Gulmarg " to seize Kashmir. They reached and captured Baramulla on 25 October. Instead of moving on to Srinagar just 50 km away and capturing its undefended airfield, they stayed there for several days. Kashmir's security forces turned out to be too weak and ill-equipped to fight against Pakistan. Fearing that this invasion would bring about an accession to Pakistan, the Maharaja now turned to India and requested India for troops to safeguard Kashmir. Indian Prime Minister Nehru was ready to send the troops, but the acting Governor General of India, Lord Mountbatten of Burma , advised the Maharaja to accede to India before India could send its troops. Hence, considering the emergent situation he signed the instrument of accession to the Union of India on 26 October 1947 (see the two-page document's photo below).

Charles Chevenix Trench writes in his 'The Frontier Scouts' (1985):

In October 1947... tribal lashkars hastened in lorries - undoubtedly with official logistic support - into Kashmir... at least one British Officer, Harvey-Kelly took part in the campaign. It seemed that nothing could stop these hordes of tribesmen taking Srinagar with its vital airfield. Indeed nothing did, but their own greed. The Mahsuds in particular stopped to loot, rape and murder; Indian troops were flown in and the lashkars pushed out of the Vale of Kashmir into the mountains. The Mahsuds returned home in a savage mood, having muffed an easy chance, lost the loot of Srinagar and made fools of themselves.

In the words of General Mohammad Akbar Khan (Brigadier-in-Charge, Pakistan, in his book "War for Kashmir in 1947"): "The uncouth raiders delayed in Baramulla for two (whole) days for some unknown reason." [20]

While the invading Pakistanis spread across the State and looted Baramulla town just 50 km from the state capital, Srinagar, for several days starting 25 October 1947, the Maharaja signed Instrument of Accession to the Dominion of India on 26 October 1947. Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah had already reached Delhi a day earlier on 25 October to persuade Nehru to send troops. He made no secret of the danger the State faced and asked Nehru to lose no time in accepting the accession and ensuring the speedy dispatch of Indian troops to the State. (Sheikh Abdullah corroborates this account in his Aatish-e-Chinaar (at pages 416 and 417) and records (at page 417) that V.P. Menon returned to Delhi on 26 October with signed Instrument of accession.) [21] The Instrument was accepted by the Governor-General of India the next day, 27 October 1947. With this signing by the Maharaja and acceptance by the Governor-General, the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir became a part of Dominion of India as per the Indian Independence Act 1947 passed by the British parliament.

By this time the raiders were close to the capital, Srinagar Indian troops were airlifted from Delhi, landed at Srinagar airport in Kashmir on 27 October 1947 and secured the airport before proceeding to evict the invaders from Kashmir valley.

The Indian troops managed to evict the aggressors from parts of Kashmir but the onset of winter made much of the state impassable. After weeks of intense fighting between Pakistan and India, Pakistani leaders and the Indian Prime Minister Nehru declared a ceasefire and sought U.N. arbitration with the promise of a plebiscite . In 1957, north-western Kashmir was fully integrated into Pakistan, becoming Azad Kashmir (Pakistan-administered Kashmir). In 1962, China occupied Aksai Chin , the north-eastern region bordering Ladakh . In 1984, India launched Operation Meghdoot and captured more than 80% of the Siachen Glacier .

Pakistan now maintains Kashmiris' right to self-determination through a plebiscite and the promised plebiscite should be allowed to decide the fate of the Kashmiri people. India on the other hand asserts that with the Maharaja's signing the instrument of accession, Kashmir has become an integral part of India.

Due to all such political differences, this territorial claim has been the subject of wars between the two countries in 1947 and 1965 , and a limited conflict in 1999 . The state remains divided between the two countries by the Line of Control (LoC), which demarcates the ceasefire line agreed upon in the 1947 conflict modified in 1972 as per Simla Agreement .

Wars, conflicts and disputes Main article: Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts Further information: Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 , Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 , Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 , Kargil War , Siachen conflict , and Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir

India and Pakistan have fought in numerous armed conflicts since their independence. There are three major wars that have taken place between the two states, namely in 1947, 1965 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. In addition to this was the unofficial Kargil War and some border skirmishes.

War of 1965 Main article: Indo-Pakistani War of 1965   This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it . (July 2013)

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 started following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar , which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against rule by India. [22] The five-week war caused thousands of casualties on both sides. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. It ended in a United Nations (UN) mandated ceasefire and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration .

War of 1971   Pakistan's Lt Gen Niazi (sitting second from right) signing the Instrument of Surrender , following the defeat of Pakistan in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 . Main articles: Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 , Bangladesh Liberation War , and Indo-Pakistani Naval War of 1971   This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it . (July 2013)

Pakistan, since independence, was geo-politically divided into two major regions, West Pakistan and East Pakistan . East Pakistan was occupied mostly by Bengali people . In December 1971, following a political crisis in East Pakistan, the situation soon spiralled out of control in East Pakistan and India intervened in favour of the rebelling Bengali populace. The conflict, a brief but bloody war, resulted in the independence of East Pakistan. In the war, the Indian Army invaded East Pakistan from three sides, while the Indian Navy used the aircraft carrier INS Vikrant (R11) to impose a naval blockade of East Pakistan. The war saw the first offensive operations undertaken by the Indian Navy against an enemy port, when Karachi harbour was attacked twice during Operation Trident (1971) and Operation Python . These attacks destroyed a significant portion of Pakistan's naval strength, whereas no Indian ship was lost. The Indian Navy did, however, lose a single ship, when INS Khukri (F149) was torpedoed by a Pakistani submarine. 13 days after the invasion of East Pakistan, 90,000 Pakistani military personnel surrendered to the Indian Army and the Mukti Bahini . After the surrender of Pakistani forces, East Pakistan became the independent nation of Bangladesh .

Kargil War Main article: Kargil War   This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it . (July 2013)

During the winter months of 1998-99, the Indian army vacated its posts at very high peaks in Kargil sector in Kashmir as it used to do every year. Pakistani Army intruded across the line of control and occupied the posts. Indian army discovered this in May 1999 when the snow thawed. This resulted in intense fighting between Indian and Pakistani forces, known as the Kargil conflict . Backed by the Indian Air Force, the Indian Army regained some of the posts that Pakistan has occupied. Pakistan later withdrew from the remaining portion under international pressure.

Other territorial claims   This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it . (March 2013)

The relations are locked in other territorial claims such as the Siachen Glacier and Kori Creek .

Water disputes

The Indus Waters Treaty governs the rivers that flow from India into Pakistan. Water is cited as one possible cause for a conflict between the two nations, but to date issues such as the Nimoo Bazgo Project have been resolved through diplomacy. [23]

Bengal refugee crisis Further information: East Bengali refugees

In 1949, India recorded close to 1 million Hindu refugees, who flooded into West Bengal and other states from East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), owing to communal violence, intimidation and repression from authorities. The plight of the refugees outraged Hindus and Indian nationalists, and the refugee population drained the resources of Indian states, which were unable to absorb them. While not ruling out war, Prime Minister Nehru and Sardar Patel invited Liaquat Ali Khan for talks in Delhi. Although many Indians termed this appeasement, Nehru signed a pact with Liaquat Ali Khan that pledged both nations to the protection of minorities and creation of minority commissions. Khan and Nehru also signed a trade agreement, and committed to resolving bilateral conflicts through peaceful means. Steadily, hundreds of thousands of Hindus returned to East Pakistan, but the thaw in relations did not last long, primarily owing to the Kashmir conflict .

Afghanistan Further information: Afghanistan–India relations and Afghanistan–Pakistan relations

Afghanistan and Pakistan have had their own historic rivalry over their border, the Durand Line , which numerous Afghan governments have refused to recognize as the border. This has led to strong tensions between the two countries and even military confrontations , resulting in Pakistan as victorious. Pakistan has long accused Afghanistan of harboring Baloch separatist rebels and attempting to sponsor separatist tendencies amongst its Pashtun and Baloch populations, going as far back as the 1950s. It has been believed that Pakistan during the 1970s, then under Bhutto , in retaliation began supporting Islamist factions in Afghanistan. [24] These factions proved rebellious for the Afghan government that was friendly to the Soviet Union and its South Asian ally, India.

The later Soviet intervention in Afghanistan to prevent further escalation and eventual Islamist takeover of the country proved disastrous afterwards. The United States and its allies feared direct Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and began aiding Pakistan's support for the Afghan Mujaheddin, in hopes of crippling the Soviet Union. The Soviet-Afghan war turned out to be a stalemate with heavy casualties on all sides and costly for the Soviets. Under international agreement, the Soviets withdrew. But various Afghan factions fought one another and their external supporters, including the Soviet Union, Iran, Pakistan and others disagreed on which should be in power.

Continued rival proxy support led to the civil war , in which Pakistan supported in the Taliban , seeking to secure its interests in Afghanistan and providing strategic support, while India and Afghanistan's other neighbors backed the Northern Alliance .

After the Taliban defeated the Northern Alliance in much of Afghanistan in the Afghan Civil War (1996-2001) , the Taliban regime continued to be supported by Pakistan – one of the three countries to do so – before the 11 September attacks . India firmly opposed the Taliban and criticized Pakistan for supporting it. India established its links with the Northern Alliance as India officially recognized their government, with the United Nations . India's relations with Afghanistan , Pakistan's neighbor, and its increasing presence there has irked Pakistan.

The 2008 Indian embassy bombing in Kabul was a suicide bomb terror attack on the Indian embassy in Kabul , Afghanistan on 7 July 2008 at 8:30 AM local time. [25] US intelligence officials suggested that Pakistan's ISI intelligence agency had planned the attack. [26] Pakistan tried to deny any responsibility, [26] [27] but United States President George W. Bush confronted Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani with evidence and warned him that in the case of another such attack he would have to take "serious action". [28]

Pakistan has been accused by India, Afghanistan, the United States, [29] [30] and the United Kingdom, [31] of involvement in terrorism in Kashmir and Afghanistan. [32] In July 2009, former President of Pakistan Asif Ali Zardari admitted that the Pakistani government had "created and nurtured" terrorist groups to achieve its short-term foreign policy goals. [33] According to an analysis published by Saban Centre for Middle East Policy at Brookings Institution in 2008 Pakistan was the world's "most active" state sponsor of terrorism including aiding groups and Pakistan has long aided a range of terrorist groups fighting against India in Kashmir and is a major sponsor of Taliban forces fighting the U.S.-backed government in Afghanistan. [34]

Insurgency in Kashmir Main article: Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir

According to some reports published by the Council of Foreign Relations , the Pakistan military and the ISI have provided covert support to terrorist groups active in Kashmir , including the al-Qaeda affiliate Jaish-e-Mohammed . [35] [36] Pakistan has denied any involvement in terrorist activities in Kashmir , arguing that it only provides political and moral support to the secessionist groups who wish to escape Indian rule. Many Kashmiri militant groups also maintain their headquarters in Pakistan-administered Kashmir , which is cited as further proof by the Indian government.

Author Gordon Thomas stated that Pakistan "still sponsored terrorist groups in the state of Kashmir, funding, training and arming them in their war on attrition against India." [37] Journalist Stephen Suleyman Schwartz notes that several militant and criminal groups are "backed by senior officers in the Pakistani army, the country's ISI intelligence establishment and other armed bodies of the state." [38]

List of some insurgent attacks

Insurgents attack on Jammu and Kashmir State Assembly: A car bomb exploded near the Jammu and Kashmir State Assembly on 1 October 2001, killing 27 people on an attack that was blamed on Kashmiri separatists. It was one of the most prominent attacks against India apart from on the Indian Parliament in December 2001. The dead bodies of the terrorists and the data recovered from them revealed that Pakistan was solely responsible for the activity. [ citation needed ]

1997 Sangrampora massacre : On 21 March 1997, 7 Kashmiri Pandits were killed in Sangrampora village in the Budgam district. [ citation needed ] Wandhama Massacre : In January 1998, 24 Kashmiri Pandits living in the city Wandhama were killed by nonsense Islamic terrorists. [ citation needed ] Qasim Nagar Attack: On 13 July 2003, armed men believed to be a part of the Lashkar-e-Toiba threw hand grenades at the Qasim Nagar market in Srinagar and then fired on civilians standing nearby killing twenty-seven and injuring many more. [2] Assassination of Abdul Ghani Lone: Abdul Ghani Lone, a prominent All Party Hurriyat Conference leader, was assassinated by an unidentified gunmen during a memorial rally in Srinagar . The assassination resulted in wide-scale demonstrations against the Indian occupied-forces for failing to provide enough security cover for Mr. Lone. [3] 20 July 2005 Srinagar Bombing: A car bomb exploded near an armoured Indian Army vehicle in the famous Church Lane area in Srinagar killing four Indian Army personnel, one civilian and the suicide bomber. Terrorist group Hizbul Mujahideen , claimed responsibility for the attack. [4] Budshah Chowk attack : A terrorist attack on 29 July 2005 at Srinigar 's city centre, Budshah Chowk, killed two and left more than 17 people injured. Most of those injured were media journalists. [5] Murder of Ghulam Nabi Lone: On 18 October 2005, a suspected man killed Jammu and Kashmir's then education minister Ghulam Nabi Lone. No Terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attack. [6] 2016 Uri attack : A terrorist attack by four heavily armed terrorists on 18 September 2016, near the town of Uri in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, killed 18 and left more than 20 people injured. It was reported as "the deadliest attack on security forces in Kashmir in two decades". [39] Insurgent activities elsewhere

The attack on the Indian Parliament was by far the most dramatic attack carried out allegedly by Pakistani terrorists. India blamed Pakistan for carrying out the attacks, an allegation which Pakistan strongly denied and one that brought both nations to the brink of a nuclear confrontation in 2001–02. However, international peace efforts ensured the cooling of tensions between the two nuclear-capable nations.

Apart from this, the most notable was the hijacking of Indian Airlines Flight IC 814 en route New Delhi from Kathmandu , Nepal. The plane was hijacked on 24 December 1999 approximately one hour after take off and was taken to Amritsar airport and then to Lahore in Pakistan. After refueling the plane took off for Dubai and then finally landed in Kandahar , Afghanistan. Under intense media pressure, New Delhi complied with the hijackers' demand and freed Maulana Masood Azhar from its captivity in return for the freedom of the Indian passengers on the flight. The decision, however, cost New Delhi dearly. Maulana, who is believed to be hiding in Karachi , later became the leader of Jaish-e-Mohammed , an organisation which has carried out several terrorist acts against Indian security forces in Kashmir .